Session 1 – Professionalism and Ethics
Profession: A position within society trusted with performing a specific set of skills ethically, based on a body of knowledge and extensive training.
Professionalism: Behaviour within accordance to guidelines set out by the profession regarding matters such as teaching, research, community service, demeanor and many others.
Ethics: A set of codes and guidelines regarding conduct written by the professional body for the purpose of self-governance.
Morals: Standards to judge specific actions and behaviours based on ethical codes.
Values: Cultural beliefs that assign priority to elements of society.
Relativism: Validity of a point of view can only be determined relative to other points of view.
Conscience: An internal drive to act within accordance with the standards of ethics.
Power: Control over a patient’s treatment and overall wellbeing.
Trust: Faith patients place in practitioners to act competently in their best interest.
Autonomy: Right of a patient to make decisions about their medical treatment independently.
Beneficence: Doing as much good as possible for the patient.
Non-malfeasance: The principle of doing no harm.
Justice: The principle that each patient has the right to be treated fairly without prejudice.
Veracity: Honesty towards patients out of respect for their autonomy.
Confidentiality: Actively keeping patient information secure to honor the trust the patient has put in the practitioner and the confidentiality agreed on between patient and practitioner.
Fiduciary: Responsibility created by trust placed in practitioners by patients.
Paternalism: Acting as a guardian to aid the decisions making of the patient.
Accountability: Obligation to act in the patient’s best interest according to laws and ethics.
Compassion: Acting sympathetically towards a patient regarding their condition.
Excellence: Responsibility of a professional to hold themselves to higher standards relative to a member of the general population.
Integrity: Responsibility of a professional to act ethically, with upstanding moral character.
Boundary: Societally defined acceptable distances (physical, psychological and social) between patient and practitioner.
Transference: The act of transferring. This could be regarding transferring feelings from one person to another by association or transferring a patient to another health care practitioner.
Conflict of interest: A bias created when an individual or an organization has multiple invested in a situation.
Conflict: disagreement between points of view.
Session 2 – Law, Legislation and Regulatory Bodies
College of Chiropractors of Ontario: Regulates and licences chiropractors in Ontario.
Canadian Chiropractic Association: acts on a national level to help chiropractors provide excellent patient care by focus on integrating chiropractic into Canadians’ existing healthcare teams, strengthening inter-professional relationships, while emphasizing integrity and ethics.
Canadian Chiropractic Protective Agency: focuses on the protection of its members through safe work habits, proper record keeping and high standards of care.
World Federation of Chiropractic: Is the voice of chiropractic in the international community.
Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act: Regulates how healthcare professionals use radiation for the purposes of diagnostic imaging in Ontario.
Registered Health Professionals Act: Regulates the scope of practice of 23 health care professions in Ontario and defines controlled acts.
their respective regulatory Colleges
Canada Health Act: a set of federal legislations which serve as guidelines to govern provincial and territorial administration of healthcare.
Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care: a provincial (Ontario) body that works to assist patients to navigate the Canadian healthcare system.
Session 3 – International Status
Regulation: A rule administered by an authority.
Unregulated: Something not controlled or supervised by rules or laws.
Regulatory body: An organization that governs a group of individuals and ensures adherence to rules and laws.
Licence: A permit from an authority granting legal ability do perform a particular act.
Legitimate: Conforming to laws and rules.
Recognized: A practice that is seen to be legitimate under the law.
Session 4 – Cultural competence
Culture: A collective of the expression of a group of people such as art, beliefs, values and traditions.
Cultural Awareness: Recognition of the values one holds reflect the culture they are a part of.
Cultural Sensitivity: Awareness of cultural difference and not making value judgements of these differences.
Cultural Competence: A health care provider recognizing the needs of patients based on their cultural values and sensitivities.
Cultural Safety: A practice that is respectful to culture sensitivities.
Diversity: A great variety of cultures.
Ethnicity: A social group with cultural, national or traditional similarities.
Race: Social groups that often share physical appearance or ethnic similarities.
Race Consciousness: Inherent awareness of similarities within race social groups.
Self-awareness: Knowledge of one’s own values and behaviours.
Session 5 – IPE/IPC and Public Health
Complementary health care: A group of health care disciplines that provide therapies that work in conjunction to conventional medicine.
Alternative health care: a group of health care disciplines that are not typically used or practiced in conventional medical communities.
Integrative health care: A health care system that uses many different disciplines to cater to individual patient needs.
Acupuncture: A complementary health care discipline that uses needles to pierce the skin and subdermal tissues to alleviate pain.
Naturopathy: An alternative health care discipline that treats conditions with a non-pharmaceutical approach.
Homeopathy: An alternative health care discipline that treats conditions with small doses of natural supplements.
Osteopathy: An alternative health care discipline that treats conditions through affecting bones joints and muscles.
Medicine: The science of preventing, diagnosing and treating disease with conventional medical techniques.
interprofessional education: Health care professionals from different disciplines working together to learn about each other’s practices so they can work collaboratively in the future.
interprofessional collaboration: Health care professionals from different disciplines working together to treat patients using various techniques to optimize patient outcomes.
Integration: Combining health care disciplines into a one comprehensive health system.
Session 6 – History of Chiropractic
Important events in chiropractic history include:
-The first adjustment in 1895
-Palmer school or chiropractic opened in 1897
-The first chiropractic license was issued in Arkansas in 1915
-CMCC was established in 1945
-In 1993 utilization of chiropractic reached 10% in Ontario
Session 7 – Leadership
Leader: One who has the responsibility to make decisions on behalf of and provide guidance to a group of people.
Leadership: The act of helping a group of people achieve common goals in an organized fashion.
Autocratic Leadership: A leader who takes individual control of all tasks and decisions.
Democratic Leadership: A leader who values input from all members of the group and weighs this input when making decisions.
Laissez-faire Leadership: A leader who is relatively withdrawn and allows team members to make decisions for them.
Transformational Leadership: A leader who works to affect change in individuals and social systems.
Bureaucratic Leadership: A leader who values rigid rules and structure within the group.
Charismatic Leadership: A leader who values their team and works to ensure all group members can perform at high levels.
Servant Leadership: A leader whose primary goal is to meet the needs of the team.
Transactional Leadership: A leader who values supervision, organization and performance. This leader believes rewards and punishments are effective tools to manage their group.
Session 8 – Entrepreneurship
Business: The practice of engaging in commerce to earn a living.
Entrepreneur: A person who owns, organizes or creates a business.
Business Acumen: A fundamental understanding of how a company.
Company: A commercial business.
Corporation: A business which as a group is recognised as a single entity legally.
Limited Liability Corporation: An incorporated business in which the members of the company can’t be held accountable for the companies debts or liabilities.
Shareholder: One who owns shares in a business
Equity: The values of the shares of a company.
Revenue: The total money earned by a company.
Profit: The net income of a company after expenses.
Business Ethics: The study of proper and moral business practices.
Session 9 – Foundations, Metaphysics and Science
Metaphysics: A branch of philosophy which deals with the first principles of things such as being and knowing.
Science: The systematic study of all natural and unnatural phenomena.
Theory: A proposed explanation of a phenomena.
Fact: An indisputable truth.
Session 10 – Philosophy of Science
Philosophy: The study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality and existence.
Heuristics: A rigid and predetermined process or method.
Metaphor: A figure of speech applied to something, which if taken literally would not make sense.
Beliefs: Any statement accepted as truth.
Ideologies: A system of beliefs.
Principles: A fact or assumption that serves as foundation for a belief or belief system.
Dogma: A set of principles often handed down that is regarded as incontrovertibly true.
Paradigms: A basic assumption of a pattern.
Vitalism: A belief system that centres around the existence of a force that is fundamental to life that is separate from chemical, physical or biological phenomena.
Materialism: A system that believes that nothing exists except matter.
Session 11 – Subluxation
Subluxation (Association of Chiropractic Colleges): A complex functional/ structural/ pathological articular change that compromise neural integrity and may influence organ system function and general health.
Subluxation (Gatterman and Hansen): A theoretical model of motion segment dysfunction which incorporates the complex interaction of pathological changes in nervous, muscular, ligamentous, vascular and connective tissues.
Subluxation (D.D Palmer/ Original chiropractic definition): A bone out of place impinging on a nerve, causing disease.
Subluxation (ADIO): A bone out of place blocks nervous flow which normally travels from Above Down and Inside Out.
Subluxation (Radiological): An incomplete dislocation which alters contact of articular surfaces.
Session 12 – Final Synthesis
Chiropractic: A field of complementary medicine focused on the application of manual therapies including rehabilitative and spinal manipulative therapies to treat neuromuscular and skeletal conditions.