CP 1102 Glossary

Session 1 – Professionalism and Ethics

Profession: A position within society trusted with performing a specific set of skills ethically, based on a body of knowledge and extensive training.

Professionalism: Behaviour within accordance to guidelines set out by the profession regarding matters such as teaching, research, community service, demeanor and many others.

Ethics: A set of codes and guidelines regarding conduct written by the professional body for the purpose of self-governance.

Morals: Standards to judge specific actions and behaviours based on ethical codes.

Values: Cultural beliefs that assign priority to elements of society.

Relativism: Validity of a point of view can only be determined relative to other points of view.

Conscience: An internal drive to act within accordance with the standards of ethics.

Power: Control over a patient’s treatment and overall wellbeing.

Trust: Faith patients place in practitioners to act competently in their best interest.

Autonomy: Right of a patient to make decisions about their medical treatment independently.

Beneficence: Doing as much good as possible for the patient.

Non-malfeasance: The principle of doing no harm.

Justice: The principle that each patient has the right to be treated fairly without prejudice.

Veracity: Honesty towards patients out of respect for their autonomy.

Confidentiality: Actively keeping patient information secure to honor the trust the patient has put in the practitioner and the confidentiality agreed on between patient and practitioner.

Fiduciary: Responsibility created by trust placed in practitioners by patients.

Paternalism: Acting as a guardian to aid the decisions making of the patient.

Accountability: Obligation to act in the patient’s best interest according to laws and ethics.

Compassion: Acting sympathetically towards a patient regarding their condition.

Excellence: Responsibility of a professional to hold themselves to higher standards relative to a member of the general population.

Integrity: Responsibility of a professional to act ethically, with upstanding moral character.

Boundary: Societally defined acceptable distances (physical, psychological and social) between patient and practitioner.

Transference: The act of transferring. This could be regarding transferring feelings from one person to another by association or transferring a patient to another health care practitioner.

Conflict of interest: A bias created when an individual or an organization has multiple invested in a situation.

Conflict: disagreement between points of view.

Session 2 – Law, Legislation and Regulatory Bodies

College of Chiropractors of Ontario: Regulates and licences chiropractors in Ontario.

Canadian Chiropractic Association: acts on a national level to help chiropractors provide excellent patient care by focus on integrating chiropractic into Canadians’ existing healthcare teams, strengthening inter-professional relationships, while emphasizing integrity and ethics.

Canadian Chiropractic Protective Agency: focuses on the protection of its members through safe work habits, proper record keeping and high standards of care.

World Federation of Chiropractic: Is the voice of chiropractic in the international community.

Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act: Regulates how healthcare professionals use radiation for the purposes of diagnostic imaging in Ontario.

Registered Health Professionals Act: Regulates the scope of practice of 23 health care professions in Ontario and defines controlled acts.

their respective regulatory Colleges

Canada Health Act: a set of federal legislations which serve as guidelines to govern provincial and territorial administration of healthcare.

Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care: a provincial (Ontario) body that works to assist patients to navigate the Canadian healthcare system.

Session 3 – International Status

Regulation: A rule administered by an authority.

Unregulated: Something not controlled or supervised by rules or laws.

Regulatory body: An organization that governs a group of individuals and ensures adherence to rules and laws.

Licence: A permit from an authority granting legal ability do perform a particular act.

Legitimate: Conforming to laws and rules.

Recognized: A practice that is seen to be legitimate under the law.

Session 4 – Cultural competence

Culture: A collective of the expression of a group of people such as art, beliefs, values and traditions.

Cultural Awareness: Recognition of the values one holds reflect the culture they are a part of.

Cultural Sensitivity: Awareness of cultural difference and not making value judgements of these differences.

Cultural Competence: A health care provider recognizing the needs of patients based on their cultural values and sensitivities.

Cultural Safety: A practice that is respectful to culture sensitivities.

Diversity: A great variety of cultures.

Ethnicity: A social group with cultural, national or traditional similarities.

Race: Social groups that often share physical appearance or ethnic similarities.

Race Consciousness: Inherent awareness of similarities within race social groups.

Self-awareness: Knowledge of one’s own values and behaviours.

Session 5 – IPE/IPC and Public Health

Complementary health care: A group of health care disciplines that provide therapies that work in conjunction to conventional medicine.

Alternative health care: a group of health care disciplines that are not typically used or practiced in conventional medical communities.

Integrative health care: A health care system that uses many different disciplines to cater to individual patient needs.

Acupuncture: A complementary health care discipline that uses needles to pierce the skin and subdermal tissues to alleviate pain.

Naturopathy: An alternative health care discipline that treats conditions with a non-pharmaceutical approach.

Homeopathy: An alternative health care discipline that treats conditions with small doses of natural supplements.

Osteopathy: An alternative health care discipline that treats conditions through affecting bones joints and muscles.

Medicine: The science of preventing, diagnosing and treating disease with conventional medical techniques.

interprofessional education: Health care professionals from different disciplines working together to learn about each other’s practices so they can work collaboratively in the future.

interprofessional collaboration: Health care professionals from different disciplines working together to treat patients using various techniques to optimize patient outcomes.

Integration: Combining health care disciplines into a one comprehensive health system.

Session 6 – History of Chiropractic

Important events in chiropractic history include:

-The first adjustment in 1895

-Palmer school or chiropractic opened in 1897

-The first chiropractic license was issued in Arkansas in 1915

-CMCC was established in 1945

-In 1993 utilization of chiropractic reached 10% in Ontario

Session 7 – Leadership

Leader: One who has the responsibility to make decisions on behalf of and provide guidance to a group of people.

Leadership: The act of helping a group of people achieve common goals in an organized fashion.

Autocratic Leadership: A leader who takes individual control of all tasks and decisions.

Democratic Leadership: A leader who values input from all members of the group and weighs this input when making decisions.

Laissez-faire Leadership: A leader who is relatively withdrawn and allows team members to make decisions for them.

Transformational Leadership: A leader who works to affect change in individuals and social systems.

Bureaucratic Leadership: A leader who values rigid rules and structure within the group.

Charismatic Leadership: A leader who values their team and works to ensure all group members can perform at high levels.

Servant Leadership: A leader whose primary goal is to meet the needs of the team.

Transactional Leadership: A leader who values supervision, organization and performance. This leader believes rewards and punishments are effective tools to manage their group.

Session 8 – Entrepreneurship

Business: The practice of engaging in commerce to earn a living.

Entrepreneur: A person who owns, organizes or creates a business.

Business Acumen: A fundamental understanding of how a company.

Company: A commercial business.

Corporation: A business which as a group is recognised as a single entity legally.

Limited Liability Corporation: An incorporated business in which the members of  the company can’t be held accountable for the companies debts or liabilities.

Shareholder: One who owns shares in a business

Equity: The values of the shares of a company.

Revenue: The total money earned by a company.

Profit: The net income of a company after expenses.

Business Ethics: The study of proper and moral business practices.

Session 9 – Foundations, Metaphysics and Science

Metaphysics: A branch of philosophy which deals with the first principles of things such as being and knowing.

Science: The systematic study of all natural and unnatural phenomena.

Theory: A proposed explanation of a phenomena.

Fact: An indisputable truth.

Session 10 – Philosophy of Science

Philosophy: The study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality and existence.

Heuristics: A rigid and predetermined process or method.

Metaphor: A figure of speech applied to something, which if taken literally would not make sense.

Beliefs: Any statement accepted as truth.

Ideologies: A system of beliefs.

Principles: A fact or assumption that serves as foundation for a belief or belief system.

Dogma: A set of principles often handed down that is regarded as incontrovertibly true.

Paradigms: A basic assumption of a pattern.

Vitalism: A belief system that centres around the existence of a force that is fundamental to life that is separate from chemical, physical or biological phenomena.

Materialism: A system that believes that nothing exists except matter.

Session 11 – Subluxation

Subluxation (Association of Chiropractic Colleges): A complex functional/ structural/ pathological articular change that compromise neural integrity and may influence organ system function and general health.

Subluxation (Gatterman and Hansen): A theoretical model of motion segment dysfunction which incorporates the complex interaction of pathological changes in nervous, muscular, ligamentous, vascular and connective tissues.

Subluxation (D.D Palmer/ Original chiropractic definition): A bone out of place impinging on a nerve, causing disease.

Subluxation (ADIO): A bone out of place blocks nervous flow which normally travels from Above Down and Inside Out.

Subluxation (Radiological): An incomplete dislocation which alters contact of articular surfaces.


Session 12 – Final Synthesis

Chiropractic: A field of complementary medicine focused on the application of manual therapies including rehabilitative and spinal manipulative therapies to treat neuromuscular and skeletal conditions.


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